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الموضوع: National academic reference standards (nars) for engineering

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    إدارة المنتديات
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Nov 2010
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    القاهرة، مصر
    المشاركات
    711

    National academic reference standards (nars) for engineering



    SECTION 1 NATIONAL ACADEMIC REFERENCE STANDARDS (NARS) FOR ENGINEERING
    1.1 INTRODUCTION


    Engineers solve real-life problems. They find the best solutions through the application of their knowledge, experience and skills. Engineers help to define and refine the way of life by providing innovative, higher-performance, safer, cleaner or more comfortable daily-used facilities for human beings. They seek improvements through the processes of invention, design, manufacturing and construction.

    The products of engineering activities are intended to be sustainable. However, drawbacks are associated with such activities; for example, the water, air, environment and acoustic pollutions have been aggravated by many engineering marvels created throughout the past decades.

    The engineer’s problem-solving complexity grows as the world’s social and technological problems become more closely related. For example, the problem of air pollution cannot be solved physically without considering the social, legal, political, and ethical conflicts. Moreover, the impact of the available engineering solutions on the interests of the individuals and groups should be considered.

    Engineering studies provide students with the advanced, effective, technology-based education that should meet the expected needs of future science and technology. They should also promote the technical understanding and problem-solving skills required to face the engineering challenges of tomorrow.
    The NARS for Engineering set out generic statements which represent general expectations about standards for the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in Engineering. These statements clarify the attributes associated with the award of engineering degrees:
    Ø The awards are in accord with the frameworks for contemporary engineering education.
    Ø The Engineering degrees address the national expectations of the graduate engineers.
    Ø The degrees satisfy the actual and expected market needs.
    According to the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Engineering is the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, applied with judgment to develop ways to economically utilize the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. It is the ability to initiate and conduct activities associated with engineering processes, systems, problems, opportunities, history, future impacts and ethics with minimal negative consequences. It involves knowledge, ways of thinking, action coordination and capability development. It helps preparing individuals to make well-informed choices whether they act as consumers, workers, citizens or members of the global community.
    The engineering education should achieve excellence in undergraduate and graduate education, research, public service and advancement of the state-of-the-art within the discipline. It aims to produce able, broadly educated, highly qualified engineers through academic excellence. Moreover, it motivates students, faculty and staff to learn, grow, achieve and serve the needs of society nationally, regionally and internationally. It also prepares students for a productive and rewarding career in engineering based on strong moral and ethical foundation.

    1.2 THE ATTRIBUTES OF THE ENGINEER

    The graduates of the engineering programs should be able to:
    a) Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering concepts to the solution of engineering problems.
    b) Design a system; component and process to meet the required needs within realistic constraints.
    c) Design and conduct experiments as well as analyze and interpret data.
    d) Identify, formulate and solve fundamental engineering problems.
    e) Use the techniques, skills, and appropriate engineering tools, necessary for engineering practice and project management.
    f) Work effectively within multi-disciplinary teams.
    g) Communicate effectively.
    h) Consider the impacts of engineering solutions on society & environment.
    i) Demonstrate knowledge of contemporary engineering issues.
    j) Display professional and ethical responsibilities; and contextual understanding
    k) Engage in self- and life- long learning.

    1.3 NATIONAL ACADEMIC REFERENCE STANDARDS (NARS) FOR ENGINEERING

    The academic reference standards represent the general expectations about the qualifications, attributes and capabilities that graduates of the engineering programs should be able to demonstrate.

    1.3.1 Knowledge and Understanding:

    The graduates of the engineering programs should be able to demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of:
    a) Concepts and theories of mathematics and sciences, appropriate to the discipline.
    b) Basics of information and communication technology (ICT)
    c) Characteristics of engineering materials related to the discipline.
    d) Principles of design including elements design, process and/or a system related to specific disciplines.
    e) Methodologies of solving engineering problems, data collection and interpretation
    f) Quality assurance systems, codes of practice and standards, health and safety requirements and environmental issues.
    g) Business and management principles relevant to engineering.
    h) Current engineering technologies as related to disciplines.
    i) Topics related to humanitarian interests and moral issues.
    j) Technical language and report writing
    k) Professional ethics and impacts of engineering solutions on society and environment
    l) Contemporary engineering topics.
    1.3.2 Intellectual Skills

    The graduates of the engineering programs should be able to:
    a) Select appropriate mathematical and computer-based methods for modeling and analyzing problems.
    b) Select appropriate solutions for engineering problems based on analytical thinking.
    c) Think in a creative and innovative way in problem solving and design.
    d) Combine, exchange, and assess different ideas, views, and knowledge from a range of sources.
    e) Assess and evaluate the characteristics and performance of components, systems and processes.
    f) Investigate the failure of components, systems, and processes.
    g) Solve engineering problems, often on the basis of limited and possibly contradicting information.
    h) Select and appraise appropriate ICT tools to a variety of engineering problems.
    i) Judge engineering decisions considering balanced costs, benefits, safety, quality, reliability, and environmental impact.
    j) Incorporate economic, societal, environmental dimensions and risk management in design.
    k) Analyze results of numerical models and assess their limitations.
    l) Create systematic and methodic approaches when dealing with new and advancing technology.

    1.3.3 Practical and Professional Skills

    The graduates of the engineering programs should be able to:
    a) Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, information technology, design, business context and engineering practice integrally to solve engineering problems.
    b) Professionally merge the engineering knowledge, understanding, and feedback to improve design, products and/or services.
    c) Create and/or re-design a process, component or system, and carry out specialized engineering designs.
    d) Practice the neatness and aesthetics in design and approach.
    e) Use computational facilities and techniques, measuring instruments, workshops and laboratory equipment to design experiments, collect, analyze and interpret results.
    f) Use a wide range of analytical tools, techniques, equipment, and software packages pertaining to the discipline and develop required computer programs.
    g) Apply numerical modeling methods to engineering problems.
    h) Apply safe systems at work and observe the appropriate steps to manage risks.
    i) Demonstrate basic organizational and project management skills.
    j) Apply quality assurance procedures and follow codes and standards.
    k) Exchange knowledge and skills with engineering community and industry.
    l) Prepare and present technical reports.


    1.3.4 General and Transferable Skills

    The graduates of the engineering programs should be able to:
    a) Collaborate effectively within multidisciplinary team.
    b) Work in stressful environment and within constraints.
    c) Communicate effectively.
    d) Demonstrate efficient IT capabilities.
    e) Lead and motivate individuals.
    f) Effectively manage tasks, time, and resources.
    g) Search for information and engage in life-long self learning discipline.
    h) Acquire entrepreneurial skills.
    i) Refer to relevant literatures.

    1.4 NARS CHARACTERIZATION FOR ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES

    1.4.1 Indicative Curricula Content by Subject Area

    Table 1: Indicative curricula content by subject area
    Subject Area % Tolerance
    A Humanities and Social Sciences (Univ. Req.) 11 9-12 %
    B Mathematics and Basic Sciences 21 20-26 %
    C Basic Engineering Sciences (Faculty/Spec. Req.) 21 20-23 %
    D Applied Engineering and Design 21 20-22 %
    E Computer Applications and ICT* 10 9-11 %
    F Projects* and Practice 9 8-10 %
    Subtotal 93 92-94 %
    G Discretionary (Institution character-identifying) subjects 7 6-8 %
    Total 100 100%


    * This part of the curriculum may be served in separate course(s) and/or included in several courses and its hours should be indicated in the course specification

    1.4.2 Definition of Subject Areas

    A- Humanities and Social Sciences

    a) Acquiring knowledge of non-engineering fields that strengthen the consciousness of the engineer of the society and its culture, including business, marketing, welfare, ethics, law, arts, etc.
    b) The ability to consider and evaluate the impact of the technology on the society, public health and safety.
    c) The ability to appreciate and engage in social and entrepreneurial activities essential to the engineering practice and reflect on the management of the economics and social science
    d) The ability to engage in life-long learning and respond effectively to the needs of the society.


    B- Mathematics and Basic Sciences

    Mathematics
    a) Acquiring knowledge in mathematical and analytical methods.
    b) The ability to reason about and conceptualize engineering components, systems or processes using analytical methods related to the discipline.
    c) The ability to analyze and model engineering components, systems and processes specific to the discipline.
    d) The skill of using probability and statistical methods.

    Basic Sciences
    a) Acquiring knowledge of physics, chemistry, mechanics, earth sciences, biological sciences and other specific subjects which focus on understanding the physical world.
    b) The ability to select and apply scientific principles in practical problem solving.
    c) The ability to analyze, model and reason about engineering components, systems or processes using principles and knowledge of the basic sciences as applicable in each engineering disciplinary context.
    d) The ability to adopt scientific evidence-based techniques in problem solving.

    C- Basic Engineering Sciences

    a) Integrating knowledge and understanding of mathematics and physical sciences to develop basic engineering laws and concepts related to the discipline.
    b) The ability to extend knowledge and develop models and methods and use techniques, principles and laws of engineering sciences that lead to engineering applications across disciplinary boundaries.
    c) The ability to deal effectively with numbers and concepts to identify/solve complex and open ended engineering problems.

    D- Applied Engineering and Design

    a) Attaining knowledge of current practice, engineering codes and design techniques relevant to the discipline.
    b) The ability to apply engineering knowledge and creative, iterative and open-ended procedures when conceiving and developing components, systems and processes.
    c) The ability to integrate engineering knowledge, engineering codes, basic and mathematical sciences in designing a component, a system or a process.
    d) The ability to work under stress, taking into account time, economy, health and safety, social and environmental factors and binding laws.

    E- Computing and ICT

    a) Attaining knowledge of ICT principles.
    b) The ability to use computers, networks and software to support engineering activity, and to enhance personal/team productivity.
    c) The ability to assess, use and validate results produced by packages and create software as required in discipline.
    d) The ability to use general ICT tools effectively.
    F- Project

    a) Gaining the knowledge and experience of applying the different principles and techniques introduced in the program of study.
    b) The ability to work within defined constraints, tackle work which lacks a well-defined outcome or which has a wide range of possible solutions and exhibit creativity in dealing with unfamiliar real-life problems.
    c) The ability to investigate, plan and execute technical research specific to the discipline over an extended period of time; meeting deadlines and putting technical work in a social and commercial context.
    d) The ability to work in a team, search published sources of information, interprets technical data and analyzes and presents findings in various ways.

    G- Discretionary Subjects
    a) Attaining knowledge and understanding of subjects selected by the institution to identify its character and/or satisfy the needs of the society.

    b) The ability to recognize, appreciate and respond effectively to the needs of the society via utilizing the technical knowledge specific to the discipline.
    c) The ability to lead and motivate people as well as organize and control tasks, people and resources.



    SECTION 2
    NARS CHARACTERIZATION FOR AEROSPACE ENGINEERING PROGRAMS


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